Power grid imbalance compensation

    Grid imbalance is caused by both single-phase consumers and two-phase consumers (induction furnaces, welding machines, quartz smelteries).

    With the same active power, the equipment's current loading from a single-phase load is considerably more than from a symmetrical load, meaning that transformers and lines can be loaded with just part of the nominal power.

    The consequences of grid imbalance include impaired control and regulation equipment, uneven loading of the transformer (losses, noise), uneven motor operation (losses, wear) and reactive power costs. Grid imbalance is an infringement of utility company requirements.

    Causes

    • 1- or 2-phase consumers in the grid due to circuit setup (projection welding machines, mains frequency crucible furnaces)
    • Brief, technology-related asymmetrical loads (electric arc furnaces)

    Effects

    • Countervoltage imbalance too high (> 2 %)
    • Column heating of three-phase current motors

    Dynamic balancing (stonemason circuit) or an active mains power filter for reactive power compensation offer solutions to grid imbalance.